JEWELRY INFORMATION AND DICTIONARY
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GUIDE TO WEARING PEARLS:
Pearls for brides:
1. open neckline--use chokers (24"-16"), princess (16"-18") or matinee (21"-24")
2.high neckline--use only earrings and a matching bracelet, no necklace
Flattering pearl colors for your skin tones:
1. Light, fair skin--use pink, white rose, or light cream rose pearls
2. Pinkish skin--use cream or rose pearls
3. Dark skin--use cream or golden pearls
Pearl lengths for different clothing styles::
1. Collarless suit--use choker or princess length
2. Open neck shirt or crew neck sweater--use short pearls
3. Turtleneck sweater--use long pearls, possibly knotted at the bottom
4. Low cut evening gown--use choker or opera length (24"-34")
Glass pearls are not real pearls. They are man-made using a milky glass bead as the base which is then dipped or sprayed one or two times with a mixture of shell, oil and fish skins. They are then dried and drilled.
1. Platinum is 90-95% pure. Other alloys, which are members of the plat family, are mixed in only for durability.
2, The natural white color of platinum maximizes the whiteness of colorless diamonds.
3. Platinum is the rarest precious metal; on average, 88 tons of platinum are mined annually for jewelry versus 2,700 tons of karat gold.
4. Platinum is naturally hypoallergenic.
5. Platinum acquires a fine patina over time. No platinum is lost when it is polished.
WHITE GOLD FACTS:
1. White gold is commonly plated with Rhodium in order to cover the natural yellowish color of gold and to give it a more pleasing white color. Plated rhodium finishes can wear off.
2. Repaired white gold jewelry requires special handling and sometimes rhodium replating.
3. Some people are normally sensitive to the nickel in white gold.
4. A new type of patented white gold, called Precise White Gold, which does not have the need for rhodium plating or the addition of nickel is expected to be available to jewelers during the summer of 2004. It has been developed by W.R. Cobb and Co. of Providence, Rhode Island, a 127-year-old manufacturer of jewelry.
1. Sterling Silver
Sterling means the silver content of the metal used is 92.5%. The other 7.5% is metal alloy , which is needed to give body and flexibility to the silver so that it can be shaped into various designs.
2. German Silver
German silver actually has no silver in it at all. It looks like silver, and it has been used to make jewelry for over 100 years. It is actually made of 65% copper, 18% nickel and 17% zinc. People who are allergic to nickel should not purchase German silver as they will possibly have a reaction to it.
3. Fine Silver
Fine silver is .999 pure. Jewelers can purchase fine silver in its raw form such as sheet and wire.
4. Precious Metal Clay
Precious Metal Clay also incorporates fine silver. According to the Precious Metal Clay Guild website, found at www.pmcguild.com, "Precious Metal Clay™ (PMC) is a revolutionary new craft material developed and patented by Mitsubishi Materials Corporation of Japan. It feels like potter's clay but when objects are fired in a kiln they are transformed into pure precious metal! The secret is microscopic particles of silver and gold suspended in an organic binder that burns out to leave solid metal."
WHAT IS A HALLMARK?
A hallmark is a stamp put on metal jewelry describing the purity of the metal used in the jewelry. For example, sterling silver is stamped .925, meaning that there is 92.5% pure silver used in the metal. Fine silver is stamped .999FS, meaning that there is 99.9% pure silver used in the metal. Gold is usually stamped 10K, 14K, 18K, 22K or 24K, all indicating the amount of pure gold in the metal. With gold, the higher the number, the more valuable the gold, but also the softer the gold will be. So 24K gold is so soft that it should not really be worn everyday as it can become scratched or damaged.
ct means carat (refers to stone weight)
kt means karat (refers to gold purity)
SWAROVSKI CRYSTAL BEADS::
Swarovski crystal beads are beads that are made of high quality crystal that have been precisely cut by a machine first patented by Daniel Swarovski in 1892. Mr. Swarovski worked for nine years to create the machine, and crystal beads cut in this manner and given the Swarovski name are recognized around the world for their quality.
WHAT ARE RIGHT HAND RINGS?
There is a lot of emphasis right now on right hand rings as a result of a campaign of the Diamond Promotion Service. A lot of companies are advocating any diamond ring as a right hand ring, but to be true to the ideas of the right hand ring promotion, right hand rings are different from diamond engagement rings, three stone rings and diamond anniversary bands. The designs specified by the Diamond Promotion Service are supposed to be oriented in a north-south direction and use a lot of open, or negative, space. The rings can contain a mix of round or fancy shapes and should include at least one diamond of 20 points or more. Four different styles, modern vintage, contemporary, floral and romantic, are to be used. Rings for the right hand should be an expression of personal style for the independent, worldly, assertive sides of a woman’s personality. The latest trend is to combine colored gemstones with diamonds for right hand rings, which in essence, makes them a cocktail ring.
The word karat in reference to gold tells you the percentage or proportion of gold purity. The percentage of gold is expressed as a ratio of 24 parts. Most jewelry is made with the following gold purities:
24 Karat means 100 percent pure gold.
22 Karat means 91.7 percent pure gold.
18 Karat means 75 percent pure gold.
14 Karat means 58 percent pure gold.
10 Karat means 41.6 percent pure gold
Colored karat gold, such as rose gold, pink gold, blue gold and purple gold, is made by mixing solid gold with alloy metals.
WHAT ARE SEMI-PRECIOUS GEMSTONES?
Semi-precious gemstones include among others amethyst, apatite, aventurine, black onyx, blue topaz, carnelian, , citrine, garnet, iolite, labradorite, lapis, malachite, moonstone, obsidian, opal, peridot, rose quartz, smokey quartz, sunstone, tiger eye, topaz, and turquoise. Here is a chart showing some of the basic colors that semi-precious gemstones have:
RED: Garnet (varies from burgandy to light red), Ruby, Rubelite Tourmaline, Fire Opal, Rhodolite Garnet
BLUE: Blue Topaz (light blue to deep blue), Turquoise, Peruvian Blue Opal, Chrysophrase, Lapis, Iolite, Apatite, Tanzanite (purplish blue), Chalcedony
GREEN: Peridot, Aventurine, Green Garnet, Malachite, Jade, Labradorite
PURPLE: Amethyst, Tanzanite (Bluish Purple), Ametrine
YELLOW: Citrine, Lemon Topaz, Yellow Tourmaline, Yellow Sapphire, Lemon Quartz
ORANGE: Carnellian, Padparadshah
BROWN: Tiger Eye, Smoky Quartz, Boulder Opal, Jasper
WHITE: Crystal (Clear), Agate, Moonstone, Druzy
BLACK: Obsidian, Black Onyx
WHAT ARE FACETED GEMSTONES?
When a gemstone is faceted, the original rough gemstone is specially ground as to affect the best play of light in the stone.
WHAT IS MOISSANITE?
Moissanite is a beautiful gemstone which resembles a diamond and which is created by Charles & Colvard. Like a diamond, it has fire, brilliance, luster and incredible hardness. However, it is not a simulated diamond nor is it a form of cubic zirconia(cz): it is a distinct gemstone in its own right. Moissanite was originally born from a star. Minute particles of Moissanite were first discovered in 1893 by Henri Moisson, a scientist, while he was examining samples of an ancient meteorite from a crater site in the Arizona desert. The particles were made of silicon carbide crystals and Moissanite was later named in honor of Henri Moisson. However, naturally occurring crystals are too small for use in jewelry. Therefore Charles and Colvard discovered a way in the late 1980's to create large crystals of Moissanite in a laboratory using an uncommon combination of art and science. However, it was not until 1995 that Moissanite was first cut and faceted into gemstones called Moissanite. Moissanite is now available in a large array of sizes and shapes, including round, princess, cushion, heart, marquise, oval, pear, radiant, triangle and trillion. The refractive index of Moissanite is 2.65, actually more brilliant than diamond whose index is only approximately 2.42. It also has more fire and luster than diamond.
The MOHS hardness of Moissanite is 9.25, only slightly lower than diamond (which is 10). However its MOHS hardness is greater than Ruby (9), Sapphire(9) and Emerald(7.50). Moissanite is so close to diamond in appearance that even some jewelers have had to use special tester machinery or a strong loupe to tell the difference. However, because it is a created gemstone, its value is not equal to diamond. Therefore, it has become popular among fashionable women, including those in Hollywood, because it is a way to have the look, beauty and durability of diamond without the price.
Moissanite vs. Diamond Summary
The chart below compares the physical properties of Charles & Colvard created Moissanite to that of a diamond.
Refractive Index (BRILLIANCE) Moissanite: 2.65-2.69
WHAT ARE CREATED GEMSTONES?
Some of our artists use other created gemstones, for example Strelllman's Dramatic Jewelry. What is a created stone? The main existing difference between a "natural" stone and a "created" stone is that the first is mined from the earth and the second is grown in a laboratory. Otherwise, created stones possess identical physical properties of the stone mined out of the ground. Why do some artists , such as Strellman's, use a lot of created gems? The answer is because they are able to achieve a consistency in the quality and color of the stone rarely found in nature. In the case of Strellman's, that consistency helps them to achieve the spectacular results they get through their special lens cut faceting. The other reason for choosing created gems is because it enables them to use a much larger stone for the same price than if they were using a natural stone. Therefore, in order to achieve a certain flamboyant look in their design, they sometimes opt for created stones.
WHAT ARE DIAMONDS?
Diamonds are precious, lustrous gemstones made of highly-compressed carbon. They are one of the hardest materials known and industrially are used to cut other materials. They have a refractive index of 2.417-2.419. The largest known diamonds include the 530.20 carat Star of Africa, the 203-carat DeBeers Millennium Star. the 94.8-carat Star of the East diamond, the 45.52 carat Hope diamond (which is kept at the Smithsonian Museum), the 31-carat McLean diamond, the 15-carat Star of the South diamond, and a 9-carat green diamond.
All diamond weight given on this website is approximate. A diamond's carat weight is simply how much it weighs! In general, one carat is about 0.2 grams or about 0.007 ounces.
Jewelers describe diamond weight either in fractions, such as 1/4 carat or in decimals such as .25 carat. When a jeweler is describing diamond weight in fractions, those fractions represent approximate weights. The commonly accepted variations of weight for these fractions are:
1/8 carat means .11 ct to .14 ct
1/5 carat means .17 ct to .23 ct
1/4 carat means .22 ct to .28 ct
1/3 carat means .28 ct to .36 ct
3/8 carat means .34 ct to .42 ct
1/2 carat means .44 ct to .56 ct
3/4 carat means .68 ct to .79 ct
1 carat means .94 ct to 1.06 ct
A diamond's value is based on the 4 C's--color, cut, clarity and carat weight.
Diamonds come in many colors besides white, which is the most commonly purchased diamond color. In white diamonds, the colors range from colorless, which is considered the most valuable, to yellow, orange, brown, and grey and almost black. There are also very rare fancy diamonds which are various shades of pink, blue, green, amber, or even red. The fancy colors are quite valuable because of their rarity and can cost in the hundreds of thousands of dollars for as little as one carat. Canary diamonds have a deep yellow color. The fancy color diamond's value is based on factors such as hue and saturation.
A white diamond's color is rated on an alphabetical scale ranging from D (white colorless) to Y(yellow). Z diamonds are fancy or deep colored diamond.
The following color ratings go down in value:
D E F (colorless)
G H I (near colorless)
J K L M
N O P (poorer quality)
A diamond's cut is designed to maximize the stone's natural "fire" or brilliance. Do not confuse the SHAPE of a diamond (round, marquise, pear , oval, heart etc.) with the cut which refers to the proportions of the diamond which enhance the brilliance.
A diamond's clarity depends on the number and size of its flaws and inclusions. The less inclusions, the more the diamond is valuable. Clarity is rated using the following designations: FI (flawless)
IF (flawless at 10x magnification)
a series of V ratings (meaning very small flaws at 10x magnification)
a series of S ratings (small flaws at 10x magnification)
a series of I ratings (having inclusions visible to the naked eye)
The following ratings go down in value:
V V S 1
V V S 2
V S 1
V S 2
S I 1
S I 2
WHAT IS ANTICLASTIC JEWELRY?
This term refers to handcrafted jewelry that has been forged in a certain way. The artist stretches the metal to form a concave curve on the outside but compresses the metal to form a convex curve in the center. The technique is very difficult and requires great skill and patience on the part of the artist.
WHAT IS MOKUME GANE?
In this technique, thin metal layers of various types and colors are laminated together. They
are then folded again and again. The stack of folded metals is then carved to create a
pattern resembling wood grain. It is a rare and difficult process that very few artists are able to accomplish. Among our artists, Charles Albert's designs sometimes exhibit this technique.
WHAT IS AN OPAL TRIPLET?
A triplet is a slice of natural opal, sandwiched between a quartz cap and a black stone backing. The cap magnifies and protects the opal slice. The backing enhances the natural color of the opal. Because the opal slice is captured in an air tight sandwich, it is generally not subject to cloudiness or cracking. However, the opal triplet should not be subjected to extended periods of water immersion or exposed to strong solvents.
WHAT IS ROMAN GLASS?
Roman Glass jewelry contains an approximately 2000 year old fragment of glass unearthed from archeological sites in Israel dating back to the time of the Roman Empires' occupation of the Holy Land. These antiquities were once part of everyday Roman Empire era household items such as wine goblets or bowls. Each fragment of ancient Roman Glass displays a unique patina (luster and flash of color).
WHAT IS BYZANTINE INSPIRED JEWELRY?
Byzantine-inspired jewelry reflects the rich culture of the 5th Century Byzantine Empire, which was known for its intricate arts and architectures incorporating complex patterns including round arches, domes, delicate spires, and generous application of sumptuous colors. This jewelry frequently has a mosaic design and is often created by Israeli artists.
WHAT IS THE MOHS SCALE?
The MOHS scale is a scale of gemstone hardness developed by Friedrich Mohs
|HOW TO WEAR A LARIAT NECKLACE: Tied around once with the long ends dangling down or wrapped around twice with the ends tied together for a choker look.
We list here both gemstones and materials that relate to specific anniversaries. Artist jewelry sometimes is made of non-gemstone materials that would also work for anniversaries, such as wood for the Fifth Anniversary. So the next time you are looking for jewelry for an anniversary, don't limit yourself just to gemstones! Remember that there is jewelry made of all of the materials listed here. Plus, expand your thinking to objects made of these materials such as a leather handbag for the 3rd anniversary, 24 karat gold embellished real roses or orchids for the 4th or the 50th anniversary, wood jewelry boxes for the 5th anniversary, crystal embellished jewelry boxes for the 15th or a silver perfume bottle or a silver rose for the 25th! Your options for gifts will be instantly expanded!
|Non-gemstone materials that relate to anniversaries:
You can also commemorate your wedding anniversaries with a gemstone.
2ND Red Garnet
4TH Blue Zircon
5TH Pink Tourmaline
7TH Yellow Sapphire
10TH Blue Sapphire
16TH Red Spinel
20TH Yellow Diamond
45TH Cat's Eye
50TH Imperial Topaz
60TH Star Ruby
65TH Blue Spinel
70TH Smoky Topaz
PERIDOT: From ancient times, peridot was renowned for many mystical properties such as warding off evil, building wealth, and most of all, attracting love. This stone was very popular with Egyptian rulers. In fact, many of Cleopatra's emeralds were actually peridots. And she never had any problem attracting love, did she?
(Information received from InStore Magazine, June, 2005)
December--Persian Turquoise or Tanzanite
|LOCATION OF GEMSTONES IN THE WORLD
Brazil, Uruguay, Madagascar, Hungary, Mexico, Japan, Iran,
United States (North Carolina, Pennsylvania, Colorado, Rhode
Africa, United States (Colorado, Maine, North Carolina, Vermont)
Brazil, Russia (Ural Mountains), France, Madagascar, United
States (California, Colorado, Georgia, Nevada)
Burma, Tibet, Guatemala, Mexico, Japan, United States
(Alaska, California, Wyoming)
United States (Arizona, California, Utah, Wyoming)
Switzerland, Brazil, Austria, Canada, United States (California)
Russia (Ural Mountains), South Australia, Africa, Mexico,
Germany, Romania, United States
Australia, Mexico, Ethiopia, Czech Republic, Turkey, Brazil,
Guatemala, Nicaragua, United States (Idaho)
Scotland, Sri Lanka, Brazil, Spain, United States (Maine,
New Hampshire, Colorado, New Jersey, Alabama, Arkansas,
North Carolina, South Carolina
United States (California, Connecticut, Maine, Montana,
United States (Arizona, Nevada, New Mexico, Colorado,
Sacred Buffalo Turquoise is known as white turquoise. Ii is mined in Nevada and is sometimes called White Turquoise or White Buffalo, but it is 75% Magnasite and 25% Hematite; so it is not a "true" turquoise. Legend says This stone is thought to energize and revitalize you. It also represents beauty, strength and determination. (Information received from Preston Reuther 7/11/05)
|INTERESTING JEWELRY DATES:
1870: Jewelers Circular magazine first published
1883: Jewelers' Security Alliance founded
1884: Jewelers Board of Trade founded
1888: De Beers Consolidated Mines Ltd. is incorporated
1905: The Cullinan, the largest gem-quality diamond ever found (3,106 carats in the rough) is uncovered in Transvaal, South Africa
1934: The 726 carat Jonker diamond is found in Pretoria, South Africa
1955: General Electric scientists announce they have produced man-made diamonds
1972: The 968.90 carat Star of Sierra Leone diamond is discovered
1981: American Gem Trade association is incorporated
In order to receive the most for your dollars when shopping for jewelry, it is important for you to understand the specialized words that may be used by different galleries or stores. Therefore, we offer this list of birthstones, anniversary gifts, and dictionary as a service to our customers.